To review available literature regarding simulation in Rhinology and assess the educational benefit of the different models. This information can then be used to create a simulation based curriculum for speciality trainees.
A systematic review identified and assessed all reported models simulating a rhinological operation. The studies/models were assessed using Kirkpatrick's evaluation of an educational intervention. Each model was critiqued considering cost, acceptability, accessibility, and validity. The systematic review in combination with motor skills acquisition educational theory informed the proposed curriculum.
A literature search identified 1073 studies describing different simulation models, with 59 studies meeting the inclusion criteria ( 39 studies Function Endoscopic Sinus Surgery, 8 Septorhinoplasty, 8 Epistaxis Management, and 4 Nasendoscopy). Two studies were able to demonstrate a transfer of skills learned in simulation to practice.
A potential Rhinology Curriculum has been outlined. It identifies which model to use for each operation mapped against trainee level, and appreciating motor skills acquisition theory. Further research is needed for validation and a pilot study with trainee and trainer input would be the next step.